!

.

The nine hundred days of Leningrad: war and life. – 1

The nine hundred days of Leningrad: war and life.




Executive summary
Introduction Some words about Leningrad`s history.3
The beginning of the Leningrads siege.5
Leningrad besieged.9
Leningrad siege break through.16
Conclusion20
List of references22


Introduction
Some words about Leningrad`s history.
The city of Leningrad was named after the great leader - Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. The city faced and survived the Great October Socialist Revolution. It was the cradle of The great October Revolution. Leningrad is one of the largest political, economic, scientific and cultural centers of the country. It is one of the most beautiful cities of the world. For revolutionary achievements, fighting and labor merits the city of Leningrad was awarded by two awards named after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, they are: "The Order of the October Revolution" and "The Order of the Red Banner ". People of Leningrad showed unparalleled feat during The Great Patriotic War to gain the honorary title "Hero town" to the city. Leningrad also was awarded with the Gold Star medal. Yet, this greatness had cost too much for the citizens.
The hardest times were when the siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade[1], nowadays the city is recognized by the name St. Petersburg, broke forth. The siege lasted more than nine hundred days, somewhat near two and one-half years. According to article named The Siege of Leningrad, the nightmare began on September 8, 1941 when German troops finished the city`s encirclement. The major plan was tactically moving towards Moscow. Hitler made a strategic option to fight the Leningrad`s problem to beggar the city into submission rather than to commit to action such valuable resources by performing a direct attack[2]. Hitler's deepest desire was to level Leningrad to the ground and present the Finns with the north areas of the Neva River. German Operation Barbarossa and the Army Group North had three strategic goals capturing the city of Leningrad was one in then, not the first yet not the least. There were several strategic importance issues that forced Leningrad`s siege, as in:
  • Being political status as the former capital of Russia;
  • Being the token capital of the Russian Revolution;
  • Being Soviet Baltic Fleet military main base;
  • Representing the industrial strength of Russia;
  • Housing great number of small and military factories.

By 1939 Leningrad was responsible for eleven present of all Soviet industrial outputs[3].
Adolf Hitler hated the city of Leningrad; he hated peoples` spirit and their will to defend their mother land. Hitler was so vicious and confident about his victorious capturing plan. He had planned the August 9, 1942 to be the date of Leningrad fall. Hitler had printed invitations to the victory celebration party to be held in the heart of Leningrad's imperial center the Hotel Astoria which was opposite St Isaac's Basilica.[4]According to a directive sent to Army Group North on September 29, "After the defeat of Soviet Russia there can be no interest in the continued existence of this large urban center. [...] Following the city's encirclement, requests for surrender negotiations shall be denied, since the problem of relocating and feeding the population cannot and should not be solved by us. In this war for our very existence, we can have no interest in maintaining even a part of this very large urban population."[5]
The German army was not alone when taking Leningrad into siege, there also were:
  • The Whites (Finland)
  • The Blue division from Hitlerite Spain,
  • legionaries of the Netherlands,
  • Holland,
  • Belgium,
  • Norway typed from fascist henchmen.

The enemys` armies substantially outweighed ours. People of Leningrad created People's volunteer corps to help and assist the Soviet army. The Corps consisted of workers, white collar workers and students. Clandestine forces and guerrilla groups were brought into being in the occupied areas of Leningrad neighborhood by brave people who were ready to die and protect their homeland.
In July 1941 the enemy was slowed down during a bloody massacre. The Northwest and Northern establishment along with the Baltic front seamen managed to detain the enemy on the distant approaches to the city of Leningrad. Hitler managed to come closer to Leningrad in the beginning of September. His army could not seize the city and level it to the dirt right away that is why it was decided to perform a long siege. The Soviet brave and self-denying soldiers were fighting back till the last drop to receive the blow and go through fire and ice.
The enemy could not overcome resistance of brave defenders of the city of Leningrad that is why they went on a try to strangle the city with a blockade, to destroy it by devastating air attacks and artillery bombardment.
Courage and never-say-die attitude of the Soviet soldiers created a force so powerful that it helped to defend their native city. The spirit to win unity was the secret weapon of Leningrad`s invincibility.
The city of Leningrad was finally free in the end of January 1944. Freedom had cost too much for the citizens. The streets of the majestic city fanned with the revolution breath, washed by heroic defenders` sweat and blood were free from the blockade!
The beginning of the Leningrads siege.
Hitlerite Wehrmacht had its own plans for Leningrad. It was a strategic point in attacking Moscow. Leningrad assumed some importance in view of supplying the Hitlerite army with supplies by sea. Hitlerites thought to strike right into the heart of the Soviet. Leningrad was the perfect place, because it was the cradle of The great October Revolution, the city of most glorious revolutionaries, military and good practices. That is why the Wehrmacht board was constantly demanding a new and more powerful forces appointed towards capturing the city of Leningrad.
In August 1941 Hitler announced that the city of Leningrad and the Russian coast of Baltic Sea were the first attain aims because there were quite a few industrial enterprises ashore and Leningrad itself held a unique ultraheavy tanks manufacture. Russian fleet on Baltic Sea elimination was not the least valuable task for Hitler.
The people of Leningrad had to face two Finnish armies The Southeast Army and The Karelian Army. The Southeast Army was to destroy the Soviet troops on The Karelian Isthmus to break through to Leningrad from the north. The Karelian Army had received the order to lead an assault between Lake Ladoga (or Ladozhskoye Ozero) and Lake Onega to make way to River Svir and join forces with the German "North" troops to destroy the Soviet detached units located to the East of Leningrad.
Adolf Hitler was so self-confident in the victory that he declared: We are to be in Petersburg within three weeks!
When the war was just at the beginning Leningrad was far away from the hot spots. The attacks were mainly pointed to the western frontier areas. Hitlerite attempted to subject the city to coventrate hence they failed to. The Protection Against Aircraft of the city of Leningrad worked perfectly. That time Leningrad had its first there Heroes of Soviet Union come into light, they were the three fighter pilots:
  • Kharitonov Petr Timofeevich, a sub-lieutenant and a fighter pilot
  • Zdorovczev Sergey Ivanovich, a 158-th fighter aviation regiment squad commander, (a 39-th fighter division), a sub-lieutenant
  • Zhukov Mikhail Petrovich, a pilot [6]

This distinguished title was conferred to them on July 8, 1941.
In June 1941 the War Front Council approved the defense plan of southwest approaches to the city of Leningrad and made a swift decision to start engineering works on the set boundaries under the reports of Front Deputy Commander in Chief, the Lieutenant General, Konstantin Pavlovich Pjadishev. It had been decided to build three defensive boundaries involving the citizens of Leningrad and people from the neighboring areas. The three defensive boundaries were located at:
  • The first was along the entire length of the Lucha River, towards Shimsk through to Ilmen Lake in the Volga delta with developed and strengthened forward defensive positions beginning at the River Plussa.
  • The second was along the line Peterhof Krasnogvorgeysk- Kaspino.
  • The third was in the Avtovo area, the district railway - Predportovaya station Srednyaya Rogatka Ribatskaya village.

There was created a large number of various engineering constructions, including five hundred and seventy permanent fire positions and earth-and-timber emplacements, one hundred and sixty kilometers of escarpments, ninety four kilometers of ant - vehicular ditches.
Front Deputy Commander in Chief, the Lieutenant General, Konstantin Pavlovich Pjadishev was in charge of the defensive line called the Luzskaya operational team[7].
State Defense Committee created the headquarters of the Northwest, Western and Southwest directions in July 1941 to make contact and work more efficiently. TheNorthwest commander-in-chief of the armed forces was Voroshilov Kliment Efremovich, the Marshal of the Soviet Union. He was in charge of Northern and Northwest fronts, as well as forces of Baltic and Northern fleet.
Hitlerite troops were forced to seize the siege with the help of persistent resistance of the Soviet forces on the Luga boundary and th...